The Science Behind the Fur: What Makes Black Cats Black?
Editor's Note: Sunday (Aug. 17) was Black Cat Appreciation Day. In honor of that, we're republishing this post, one of the many interesting and informative items on black cats written by JaneA Kelley.
It’s no secret that I love black cats. I’ve railed against the injustice of anti-black cat prejudice and pondered why people still believe the ridiculous myth that black cats are bad luck. I’ve shared my stories of black cat love and encouraged people to share theirs. But the one thing I’ve never done before is talk about the science of black cats. That changes today. Check out these seven facts surrounding genetics and other science facts of ebony kitties and their giant-size cousins.
1. In order for a cat to be solid black, both of its parents need to have the black color gene
The color gene -- called an allele -- for black is known as B. It is dominant to other variations of the gene, known as b and b’, which produce chocolate and cinnamon colors. Keep in mind, though, the ultimately dominant cat fur color pattern is tabby. So for a cat to be solid black, it must also carry a recessive gene known as a non-agouti (a), so that the tabby pattern doesn't appear. Cats who have the dominant agouti gene will retain the tabby pattern. Which brings us to our next point.
2. Some black cats are tabbies in disguise
If a cat has the black allele but the expression of the tabby gene isn’t completely repressed, you might be able to see ghostly tabby stripes on your black cat. In these cats, you might see tabby stripes on the tail or legs, or the classic “M” pattern on the head, if she’s sitting in the bright sunlight.
3. Black cats’ fur can fade or “rust”
Heavy exposure to sun can cause a black cat’s fur to change to a rusty brownish color. Another reason your cat might look rusty in normal lighting conditions is a deficiency in an enzyme called tyrosine. Tyrosine is required for the creation of eumelanin, the pigment that makes your cat’s fur black. If your black cat is rusty, talk to your vet about this possibility and whether it would be safe to give your cat a tyrosine supplement to see if she blackens up again.
4. Black cats can go gray as they age
Like humans, all cats sprout white hairs as they age, but it’s more obvious in black cats. This is a natural phenomenon and nothing to be worried about. Some cats start going gray earlier than others, but it’s very unlikely that your cat will go completely gray.
5. The big cat we call a panther is actually two different cats
Panthers in the Americas are melanistic (black-coated) jaguars, while panthers in Africa are melanistic leopards. If you look at either of these cats, you’ll see shadows of the usual markings -- spots on a jaguar and rosettes on a leopard.
6. African and American panthers have different black genes
In jaguars, the black coloration is a dominant gene, meaning that only one copy of the allele is needed to express that color. However, in leopards, black coloration is a recessive gene, so a leopard would need to have two copies of that allele to be black.
7. Black coloration might boost cats’ immune systems
Research by the National Institutes of Health is showing that genetic mutations found in black cats seem to make them more resistant to illnesses such as feline immunodeficiency virus, or FIV. The work is nowhere near complete, but the agency's work with black domestic cats and jaguars does show some promise -- not just for FIV treatment but for HIV treatment, too.
Do you know of other cool scientific facts about black cats? How about some legends about black cats as icons of good luck? Please share them in the comments.
About JaneA Kelley: Punk-rock cat mom, science nerd, animal shelter volunteer, professional cat sitter, and all-around geek with a passion for bad puns, intelligent conversation, and role-play adventure games. She gratefully and gracefully accepts her status as chief cat slave for her family of feline bloggers, who have been writing their award-winning cat advice blog, Paws and Effect, since 2003.